+44 (0) 20 3828 1325 No 1 Croydon, CR0 0XTPromoting good practice and preventing misconduct

Research integrity resources


On this page you will find a selection of research integrity resources from other organisations. Topics include:

 

Academic image integrity

References

  • A paper describing the acceptable ways to manipulate a research image.

Cromey, D. W. (2010). Avoiding Twisted Pixels: Ethical Guidelines for the Appropriate Use and Manipulation of Scientific Digital Images. Science and Engineering Ethics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-010-9201-y

  • Guidance from the seminal 2004 Journal of Cell Biology paper presents the problem of inappropriate image manipulation and gives general guidelines for the handling of digital image data in a simple/easily understandable way, with examples.

Rossner, M., & Yamada, K. M. (2009). What’s in a picture? The temptation of image manipulation. European Science Editinghttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/166/1/11.full

  • How to determine if a photo is fake.

https://www.americanscientist.org/article/how-to-detect-faked-photos

  • How journals detect image manipulation in 2 parts.

https://www.enago.com/academy/scientific-fraud-journals-detect-image-manipulation-part-1/

https://www.enago.com/academy/scientific-fraud-journals-detect-image-manipulation-part-2/

Tools

Webinars and Video

  • HEADT Centre — Humboldt-Elsevier Advanced Data and Text Centre. This video introduces to the field of scholarly image manipulation and explains why it has become a serious concern in many scholarly fields: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CRSznah_xg0

Infographic

 Further reading list

Recently the incidence of problematic digital academic research images in the published literature has been questioned. Hence, there have been efforts to establish whether there should be automation and specific tools to detect these manipulated images:

  • A paper looking at the prevalence of image duplication: Bik, E. M., Casadevall, A., & Fang, F. C. (2016). The Prevalence of Inappropriate Image Duplication in Biomedical Research Publications. MBio. https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.00809-16
  • A paper discussing the role of automatic detection of manipulated images in biomedical literature: Bucci, E. M. (2018). Automatic detection of image manipulations in the biomedical literature article. Cell Death and Disease. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-018-0430-3
  • Description of a tool designed to detect manipulated images: Koppers, L., Wormer, H., & Ickstadt, K. (2017). Towards a Systematic Screening Tool for Quality Assurance and Semiautomatic Fraud Detection for Images in the Life Sciences. Science and Engineering Ethics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-016-9841-7

 

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Authorship

References

Guidelines and Discussion Documents

Webinars and Videos

Infographic

 

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General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and research integrity

Information Commissioner’s Office

References

Guidelines and Discussion Documents

Webinars and Videos

  • A 3 minute video from the Luxembourg Agency for Research Integrity specifically aimed to help scientists understand key elements of the GDPR and how it relates to the conduct of scientific research. GDPR Basics for Scientists

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Open access and doctoral theses

Universities generally now require that e-versions of doctoral theses are deposited in their online repositories and made available as open access. This is also a requirement of many funders.

As requirements vary the general advice is that policies of publishers, individual journals and funders need to be checked and advice sought from the institution where the thesis will be deposited. 

UKRIO has compiled a list of resources to aid the process.

Guidelines and Discussion Documents

Webinars and Videos

  • Five useful videos from Cambridge University entitled ‘My thesis, open access and me: experiences of submitting a digital PhD thesis at the University of Cambridge’.  Cambridge doctoral candidates and graduates talk about open access and their PhD theses: https://sms.cam.ac.uk/collection/2838155

 

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Questionable Research Practices

References

  • Banks, G. C., Rogelberg, S. G., Woznyj, H. M., Landis, R. S., & Rupp, D. E. (2016). Editorial: Evidence on Questionable Research Practices: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Journal of Business and Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-016-9456-7
  • Bierman, D. J., Spottiswoode, J. P., & Bijl, A. (2016). Testing for Questionable Research Practices in a Meta-Analysis: An Example from Experimental Parapsychology. PloS One. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153049
  • Fraser, H., Parker, T., Nakagawa, S., Barnett, A., & Fidler, F. (2018). Questionable research practices in ecology and evolution. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200303
  • Hooper, M., Barbour, V., Walsh, A., Bradbury, S., & Jacobs, J. (2018). Designing integrated research integrity training: authorship, publication, and peer review. Research Integrity and Peer Review, 3(1), 2. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41073-018-0046-2
  • John, L. K., Loewenstein, G., & Prelec, D. (2012). Measuring the Prevalence of Questionable Research Practices With Incentives for Truth Telling. Psychological Science. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611430953
  • Rajah-Kanagasabai, C. J., & Roberts, L. D. (2015). Predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students using an augmented theory of planned behavior. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00535

Video

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Slides

 

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Please note that this list of resources is not intended to be exhaustive and should not be seen as a substitute for advice from suitably qualified persons. UKRIO is not responsible for the content of external websites linked to from this page. If you would like to seek advice from UKRIO, information on our role and remit and on how to contact us is available here.

Last revised October 2019. Next planned review January 2020. UKRIO would like to thank our Advisory Board and other volunteers for their help in putting this list together.

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